Women, Nature and Culture: An Ecofeminist Reading of the Matrilineal Culture of the Khasis, Jaintia and Garo Tribes of Meghalaya

Mujeres, naturaleza y cultura: una lectura ecofeminista de la cultura matrilineal de las tribus khasis, jaintia y garo de Meghalaya

Mulheres, Natureza e Cultura: Uma Leitura Ecofeminista da Cultura Matrilineal das Tribos Khasis, Jaintia e Garo de Meghalaya

  • P Sruthi VIT University (Vellore, India)
  • Sangeeta Mukherjee VIT University (Vellore, India)
Palabras clave: Ecofeminismo, Matrilineal, Naturaleza, Cultura, Tribu
Key-words: Ecofeminism, Matrilineal, Nature, Culture, Tribe
Palavras chave: Ecofeminismo, Matrilinear, Natureza, Cultura, Tribo





Agarwala, P. G. (2006). Role North-eastern Women in Conservation and Protection of Environment. University News, 44(37), 12-15.
Ahmed, K. R. N. Ali and F. Begum. (2010). Changing marriage system of AdivasiGaro Community and its impact on their socioeconomic development.Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University, 8(1), 133–139. doi:10.22004/ag.econ.208476
Bachofen, J. (1973).Myth, Religion and Mother-right: selected writings. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Bareh, H. (1997). The History and Culture of the Khasi People. Guwahati: Spectrum Publications.
Batricevic, A.& Paunovic, N. (2019). Ecofeminism and Environmental Security.Law and Politics, 17(2), 125-136. doi 10.22190/FULP1902125B
Yodida, B., & Liarakou, G. (2018). Gender and Nature in the Matrilineal Society of Meghalaya, India: Searching for EcofeministPerspectives.The Journal of Environmental Education, 1-8.doi 10.1080/00958964.2017.1407283
Buckingham, S. (2004). Ecofeminism in the Twenty First Century. The Geographical Journal, 170(2), 146-154. Wiley.
Chakrabarty, M. (1995). Different Fertility and Infant Mortality among the Jantias of Meghalaya- A Study on Bio-Social Correlates [Ph. D thesis, Gauhati: Gauhati University. Retrieved in: http://hdl.handle. net/10603/66233
Chattopadhyay, S.K. (1988). The Jaintias: Socio-political Institutions of Jaintia Hills. New Delhi: Cosmo Publications.
Clignet, R. (1970). Many wives, many powers: Authority and Power in Polygynous Families. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Das, N. (1996). Cultural identity and tribal heritage of North-East India. In K. K. Chakravarty (Ed.), Tribal identity in India: Extinction or adaptation(pp. 1–26). Gandhi RashtriyaManav Sangrahalaya.
Das, G. & Bezbaruahç, A. (2011). Social Transition and Status of Women among the Khasi Tribe of Meghalaya by Survey Method.Global Research Methodology Journal, (2).
Ellena, R. & Nongkynrih, K.A. (2018). Changing gender roles and relations in food provisioning among matrilineal Khasi and patrilineal Chakhesang Indigenous Rural People of North‐East India. Maternal and Child Nutrition,13(S3), 1-14.
Griffin, S. (2016). Woman and Nature: The Roaring Inside. Her. New Delhi: Counterpoint.
Hartung, J. (1985). Matrilineal Inheritance: New Theory and Analysis. Behavioral Brain Sciences,8(4), 661-670.doi https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00045520
Jobling, M., Tyler-Smith, C. (2003). The human Y chromosome: An evolutionary marker comes of age. Nature Reviews Genetics 4(8), 598–612. doi 10.1038/nrg1124
Kapadia, K. (1980). Marriage and family in India. Calcutta, India: Oxford University Press.
Karlsson, B.G. (2011).Unruly Hills: Nature and nation in India’s northeast. New Delhi: OrientBlackswan.
Kasum, K., & P. M. Bakshi. (1982). Customary Law and Justice in the Tribal Areas of Meghalaya. Bombay: N. M. Tripathi Pvt.
Knight, C. (2008). Early Human Kinship Was Matrilineal. In N. J. Allen, H. Callan, R. Dunbar & W. James (Eds.), Early Human Kinship(pp.61-82).Oxford: Blackwell.
Kothari, S.P. (2019, Nov 30). How Some Men Want to Change Meghalaya’s Matrilineal Society. The Economic Times. Retrieved from: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/howsome- men-want-to-change-meghalayas-matrilineal-society/articleshow/72309605.cms?from=mdr
Kyndiah, P. R. (1990). Meghalaya Yesterday and Today. New Delhi: Har- Anand Publications.
Lafitau, J.F. (2011). Early Human Kinship: From Sex to Social Reproduction. Nicholas J. Allen, Hilary Callan, Robin Dunbar, Wendy James (Eds).New York: Blackwell Publishing LTD.
Lehman, F. K. (1969). Ethnology: Garo and Khasi: A Comparative Study in Matrilineal Systems. Chie Nakane. American Anthropologist, 71(6), 1155-1158. doi https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1969.71.6.02a00280
Maaker, E. (2013). Performing the Garo Nation? GaroWangala Dancing between Faith and Folklore. Asian Ethnology Volume, 72(2), 221–239.
Maaker, E., &Vibha, J. (2007). Introduction: The Northeast andBeyond: Region and Culture. South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, 30(3), 381- 390.
Mellor, M. (2000). Feminism and Environmental Ethics: A Materialist Perspective. Ethics and the Environment, 5(1), 107-123.
Merchant, C.(1990).The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology, and the Scientific Revolution. HarperOne; New York.
Mies, M., &Vandana, S. (1993). Ecofeminism. London: Zed Books
Moffatt Mills, A. J. (1985). Report on the Khasi And Jaintia Hills, 1853. Shillong: North-Eastern Hill University Publications.
Nieves Rico, M. (1998). Gender, The Environment And The Sustainability Of Development. Santiago, Chile: United Nations.
Nogueira, G.E. (2013). The Ecofeminism of IvoneGebar (Theses, University of Cape Town, South Africa).
Nongbri, T. (2000). Gender and the Khasi family structure. In P. Uberoi (Ed.), Family, kinship and marriage in India (pp. 176–186). Oxford University Press.
Oosterhoff, P., Dkhar, B., & Albert, S. (2015). Understanding Unmet Contraceptive Needs among Rural Khasi Men and Women in Meghalaya. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 17(9), 1105-1118. doi 10.1080/13691058.2015.1042918.
Parpart, J.L. (2000). Theoretical Perspectives on Gender and Development. Canada: Commonwealth of Learning
Phawa, G.M., Dkhar E., & Marbaniang, D. (2019).Indigenous Wild Edible Plants of Bataw Village, East Jaintia Hills District, Meghalaya. International Journal of Arts, Science and Humanities, 7(2), 17-23. doi https://doi.org/10.34293/sijash.v7i2.578
Piyashi, D., & Kedilezo, K. (2016). Folk Practices of the Khasi Tribe: A Description of Jingrwai Iawbei in Kongthong Village. Indian sociological bulletin, 65(2), 237-252. doi 10.1177/0038022920160205
Playfair, A. (1975). The Garos. Gauhati: United Publishers.
Poewe, K. (1978). Matriliny in the throes of change: Kinship, descent, and marriage in Luapula, Zambia. Africa. 48(4): 353-367.
Rao, M. (2012). Ecofeminism at the Crossroads in India: A Review. DEP, 124-142.
Rahman, M. H. & Fardusi, M. (2012). Indigenous Plant Utilization and Farming System of Garo Tribe in North-East Bangladesh: A Means of Sustainable Biodiversity Conservation. Journal of Forest Science, 28(2), 2287-2396. DOI: 10.7747/JFS.2012.28.2.084
Roth-Johnson, D. (2013). Back to the Future: Françoise d’Eaubonne, Ecofeminism and Ecological Crisis. The International Journal of Literary Humanities, 10(3), 51-61.
Ruether, R.R. (1996). Introduction to Women Healing Earth: Third World Women on Ecology, Feminism, and Religion. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.
… (1998). Women and Redemption: A Theological History. London, England: SCM Press.
Sen, S. (2004). Khasi-Jaintia Folklore: Context, Discourse, and History. Chennai: National Folklore Support Centre.
… (1985).Social and State Formations in Khasi and JaintiaHills;A Study of Folklore. New Delhi: BR Publishing Corporation.
Shiva, V. (1988). Staying Alive: Women, Ecology and Survival in India. New Delhi: Kali for Women.
Sikdar, Mithun. (2009). Continuity and Change in Matrilineal Marriage System:A Case Study among the Garos of PoschimBosti, Assam. Stud Tribes Tribals, 7(2), 125-130. https://doi. org/10.1080/0972639X.2009.11886603
Singh, B., Sinha, B.K., Phukan, S.J., Borthakur, S.K. & Singh, V.N. (2012). Wild Edible Plants used by Garo Tribes of Nokrek Biosphere Reserve in Meghalaya. India.Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 11(1), 166-171.
Ananthanarayan, S. (2010). Scheduled Tribe Status for Adivasis in Assam. South Asia. Journal of South Asian Studies, 33(2), 290-303. Doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00856401.2010.494823
Takyi, B., & Obeng, S. (2007). Matrilineal Family Ties and Marital Dissolution in Ghana. Journal of Family Issues, 28(5), 682-705. Doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X070280050401
Tiwari, B. K. (2006, March 7-9). Impact of Cash Crop Cultivation on Gender Relations Dynamics in Khasi Community, a Matrilineal Tribe of Meghalaya, India (Paper Presentation). Internatonal Symposium. Chiang Mai: Thailand.
Wapanginla. (2003). A reflection on the situation of women in the North-East region of India. Retrieved from http://www.wscfap.org/resources/womenspace/2003/2003-reflection_india.html
Yadav, P. K & Manish, K. (2012).Indigenous Garo Community in Garo Hills Meghalaya, North- East India (Paper Presentation). 2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity of Indian. New Delhi: 2nd National Conference on Environment and Biodiversity

Cómo citar
Sruthi, P; Mukherjee, Sangeeta. Mujeres, naturaleza y cultura: una lectura ecofeminista de la cultura matrilineal de las tribus khasis, jaintia y garo de Meghalaya. Cultura de los cuidados. 2020; (58): 165-77. Disponible en: http://ciberindex.com/c/cc/58165cc [acceso: 31/05/2023]


Normas y uso de comentarios

Hay un total de 0 comentarios


Para enviar un comentario, rellene los campos situados debajo. Recuerde que es obligatorio indicar un nombre y un email para enviar su comentario (el email no sera visible en el comentario).